I will give you some some tips for your upcoming cruise, but first I will answer your questions.
1. Normally you will do one of two things depending on your excursion: (1) You will meet your entire excursion group on the ship at a specific time at a public venue such as the MDR or Theater or (2) You will get off the ship on your own and go to a "plaza"-like place directly after the dock and find a person holding up a sign with your excursion name and go with them. Everything will be explained on ht ship and if you still are unsure, then you can go to an information session about the port and/or excursions in ht theater which normally takes place the morning before the day of the port with the CD (cruise director).
2. The dining time is specific to the MDR (main dining room). The MDR is a full 3-course sit-down dining experience. There are three time options early (6ish), late (8:15ish), and my-time. My-time dining is like land where you show up whenever you want to eat and they will sit you at a table based on availability. This option is more flexible. Early and late dining are set-time dining. Meaning, you will be at the same table and have the same wait staff every night. In set-time dining, it is more common to see waiters dancing on tables in costumes to music while everyone is waving their napkin in the air. This could happen during My-time, but it hit or miss. Set-Dining also evolves around shows. Meaning, if you have early dining, there will be a show after your dining time whereas if you have late dining the show will be before your diner. With My-time dining is is easier to miss shows due to when you at and how long it takes for you to eat.
All other dining venues save the specialty restaurants (I will explain those in a moment) are included with your cruising fare and when they are open depends on the venue. On Breeze, the included venues are Pizza Pirate (pizza, open 24-hours), Guy's Burger Joint (burgers and fries, open during lunch), Blue Iguana Cantina (tacos and burritos, open breakfast- breakfast burritos- and lunch), Guy's Pig and Anchor Bar-B-Que (Bar-B-Que, open sea day lunch and embarkation day), Mongolian Wok (custom stir-fry, open lunch), Caption's Pasta Bar (custom pasta dishes, open lunch- this turns into a for-fee specialty Italian restaurant at night, different menu), Lido Marketplace (lido-deck buffet, open breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and the MDR (explained above, but breakfast, brunch, and lunch are on a walk-in basis).
Specialty restaurants are for-fee restaurants. Those on the Breeze are Cucina Del Capitano (Italian, $15), Fahrenheit 555 (Steakhouse, $38), Bonsai Sushi (Sushi, a-la-carte), Seafood Shack (fresh seafood, a-la-carte), and Chef's Table (a sampling menu with the chef explaining everything about Galley and you get a galley-tour as well, this is in a very intimate group or 14, price varies by ship but I have done it for at the lowest $75 and at the highest $95).
On embarkation day, I would recommend going to either Caption's Pasta Bar (Cucian Del Capitano, Deck 11 Aft) or Pig and Anchor (Dark 5, Mid-ship-Aft on Lanai) as these options are less crowded as not may people know about them. Redo Marketplace Buffet is going to be packed which is not fun.
3. There are mini-fridges in staterooms on Breeze. You can ask your steward for an ice bucket. Can get ice at Lido Marketplace.
4. Room service is currently included for sandwiches, salads, deserts, and continental breakfast and is a small charge for hot items. They just undid their action of making everything for-fee de to customer complaints, but they are editing it so it is subject to change broker your cruise.
5. Luggage will be given to a porter upon your arrival to the port. They will be competing for tips, just a warning. The luggage is then send to the hallway outside of your room by dinner-time-ish.
Here are other tips not mentioned above for Breeze that are on the top of my head:
1. The lanai is around deck 5 and is a really nice place to take a walk, sit and look at the ocean, etc. There are also hot-tubs don here that are less-crowded.
2. Bring collapsible storage bins or hanging shelfs for extra storage
3. In the MDR, you MUST get the Carnival Warm melting Chocolate Cake. It is AMAZING. If you don't have a nut allergy or anything, be sure to get it with peanut butter. One of the formal nights is also lobster night.
4. On Dream class ships, decks 6-11, save 8, have sundecks all the way forward above/below the bridge. Pretend you are going to a forward stateroom on these decks and open the unlabeled door at the end of the hall. (The perfect spot for sail aways)
5. If you want a sampling of entrees from the MDR, they can make pasta dishes in half portions so you don't waste as much food. In the MDR, you can also get as many appetizers, entrees, and deserts as you wish. Your waiter won't give you a look if you do so, as everyone does it, so don't worry.
6. Mix the soft serve, milk, and crushed cookie to make your own milkshake
7. Use an old card on the light thing in your room so that you don't need to worry about taking anything in and out of it or forgetting you sail and sign card
8.You can get other ice cream flavors and multiple scoops with the melting cake
9. Make your own fondue by getting the fruit plate with the melting cake.
Enjoy your cruise! Hope I was helpful!